Galantamine hydrobromide is an FDA-approved medication [R] that is primarily used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A doctor may prescribe this drug if the patient is experiencing mild to moderate dementia as a result of AD.
It is a unique compound that comes in a capsule form with a dual mode of action. Firstly, it acts as a reversible, competitive inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which breaks down acetylcholine in the brain.
Secondly, Galantamine acts as an allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. This action enhances the release of acetylcholine and promotes neuroprotective effects. Activation of nAChRs is associated with improved cognitive functions and neuroprotection.
Aside from its effects on AD, Galantamine hydrobromide is being investigated for its other potential benefits.
Galantamine Hydrobromide Product Details
Galantamine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and has been authorized for the treatment of dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease a medical condition affecting the brain. In addition to its inhibitory effects, Galantamine acts as an allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR).
Originally identified and isolated from plant sources like Galanthus nivalis in the early 1950s, Galantamine is a tertiary alkaloid. Initial studies focused on its potential benefits for test subjects with neuropathic pain and paralytic conditions, such as post-polio paralysis, myopathies, and reversing neuromuscular blockade.
However, the discovery of Galantamine’s ability to inhibit acetylcholine esterase caught the interest of many in the world of medicine. It sparked search and investigations into its potential for treating a wide range of psychiatric conditions. Nevertheless, due to the challenges associated with extracting and synthesizing Galantamine, its redevelopment as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease did not begin until the early 1990s. Eventually, in 2001, the FDA approved Galantamine as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, covering a spectrum of severity from mild to moderate to severe.
- CAS Number 357-70-0
- Molar Mass 287.359 g·mol−1
- Chemical Formula C17H21NO3
- IUPAC Name (4aS,6R,8aS)-5,6,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-3-methoxy-11-methyl-4aH-benzofuro[3a,3,2-ef]benzazepin-6-ol
- Synonyms: Galanthamine hydrobromide, Razadyne ER, Reminyl ER (in Canada)
Key Features of Galantamine Hydrobromide
- 98% Purity
- FDA-approved for dementia caused by Alzheimer’s Disease
Potential Benefits of Galantamine Hydrobromide
Galantamine Hydrobromide in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory cytokine production and reduced joint mobility. Findings from a rat model study suggest that Galantamine could be used to inhibit the inflammatory responses associated with RA. [R]
The study provides evidence supporting the potential of Galantamine as a possible option for alleviating the inflammatory manifestations of RA. Further research is necessary to explore its efficacy in human subjects. [R]
Galantamine Hydrobromide in “Substitution Therapy” for Smoking Cessation
Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with smoking, there is a pressing need to explore novel strategies for smoking cessation or reduction. Preliminary data suggest that Galantamine may have the potential to decrease smoking behavior even without additional interventions. The concept of “substitution therapy” was proposed as a potential approach for smoking cessation treatments. [R]
These findings offer promise for developing innovative treatment strategies for test subjects who typically exhibit a low motivation to quit smoking. [R]
Galantamine Hydrobromide in Organophosphorus Poisoning
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including nerve agents and pesticides, have long been studied to identify effective treatments for OP poisoning. Evidence indicates that administering the appropriate doses of Galantamine and atropine 30-45 minutes after guinea pigs are exposed to 1 x LD50 soman can result in 100% survival among the animals. [R]
Galantamine appears to mitigate neurodegeneration and modulate changes in the nicotinic cholinergic system triggered by acute exposure to 1 x LD50 soman. These findings support the potential of Galantamine as a promising treatment for OP poisoning. [R]
Galantamine Hydrobromide in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Research aimed to investigate the potential benefits of Galantamine in adults diagnosed with autism before the age of three, according to DSM-IV-TR Axis I clinical criteria. [R]
The study hypothesized that cholinergic stimulation of the serotonergic subsystem of the central nervous system (CNS) with Galantamine could enhance expressive language and communication abilities in test subjects displaying autism symptoms. The efficacy of adjunctive therapy with Galantamine in this specific population requires further exploration through clinical trials. [R]
Galantamine Hydrobromide in Chronic Post-stroke Aphasia
Galantamine’s impact on linguistic function was assessed in a study involving 45 test subjects with chronic aphasia. Language evaluation was conducted at the beginning (week 0) and conclusion (week 16) of the study. The dosage of Galantamine started at 8 milligrams per day (mg/day) for the initial four weeks, followed by an increase to 16 mg/day for the subsequent 12 weeks. [R]
How It Works
Galantamine hydrobromide (HBr) exhibits a unique dual mode of action that sets it apart in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is the only compound actively marketed for AD treatment and has demonstrated efficacy as both an allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and a reversible, competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for breaking down acetylcholine.
The inhibitory effect on AChE is particularly crucial since reduced expression and activity of nAChRs contribute significantly to the decline in central cholinergic neurotransmission observed in patients with AD.
Galantamine inhibits the anticholinesterase enzyme in the CNS (namely in the frontal cortex and hippocampal areas) via binding to the enzyme active site’s choline-binding site and acyl-binding pocket.
Galantamine has favorable pharmacokinetic properties such as predictable linear elimination kinetics at recommended maintenance doses (16 and 24 mg/day), a relatively short half-life of about 7 hours, and high bioavailability. It also has a low potential for clinically significant drug interactions due to extensive metabolism through various pathways, primarily in the liver, catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. As a result, the likelihood of significant drug-drug interactions occurring is minimal.
Furthermore, Galantamine is a unique compound that acts as an allosteric potentiator of α4β2 and presynaptic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This action enhances the release of acetylcholine from presynaptic neurons, underscoring the clinical significance of its dual mode of action. In the central nervous system, nAChRs are predominantly expressed in the membranes of presynaptic neurons and regulate the release of several neurotransmitters associated with memory, cognition, and learning, including acetylcholine, GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Activation of nAChRs improves cognitive functions, while their antagonism impedes cognitive processes.
When researching the use of Galantamine Hydrobromide, it is essential to take certain precautions. Here are some precautions to keep in mind:
Observe best practices for studying research chemicals: Studying research chemicals requires a responsible and informed approach to ensure safety and meaningful scientific exploration. Research chemicals, also known as designer drugs or experimental compounds, are substances synthesized for scientific investigation or exploration of their properties.
Follow recommended dosage: Adhere to the recommended dosage instructions outlined on the product label. Avoid exceeding the suggested dose to minimize the risk of potential adverse effects among test subjects.
Safety and Side Effects
Galantamine can affect various systems in the body, including the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory, and nervous systems. In terms of the cardiovascular system, Galantamine’s action on the sinoatrial node can lead to sinus bradycardia, a slower heart rate. In the gastrointestinal system, common adverse effects include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Some test subjects may also experience skin lesions or rashes as a side effect. In the respiratory system, Galantamine’s cholinomimetic properties can increase the risk of bronchospasm, a constriction of the airways.
In conclusion, Galantamine hydrobromide offers several benefits for test subjects with various medical conditions. With its molecular weight and carefully selected inactive ingredients, Galantamine hydrobromide is designed to provide optimal health support. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional to determine if Galantamine hydrobromide is intended for your specific condition.
The benefits of taking Galantamine hydrobromide include improved cognitive function, memory, and thinking abilities, which can significantly benefit participants with dementia-related issues. Additionally, Galantamine hydrobromide has shown potential benefits in conditions such as post-stroke aphasia, smoking cessation, autism, and organophosphorus poisoning, expanding its potential applications.
For those searching for a reliable source of Galantamine hydrobromide, reputable suppliers ensure the highest quality and purity of the product.
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