Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) is gaining attention for its potential health benefits. It plays a critical role in cellular energy metabolism and acts as a potent antioxidant. While not considered an essential nutrient, PQQ is found in trace amounts in various foods and can also be synthesized by the human body.

Recent research has highlighted its potential neuroprotective properties, supporting brain health and cognitive function. Additionally, PQQ’s role in mitochondrial function and its antioxidant capabilities enabling cells to undergo spontaneous mitochondrial biogenesis, make it an intriguing subject for further exploration in terms of cellular health, longevity, and overall well-being. Understanding its mechanisms and potential applications is an ongoing area of study, promising exciting insights into the field of nutritional science.

What is PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone)?

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) is a compound that acts as a redox cofactor in biological systems. It’s often referred to as a micronutrient or vitamin-like substance due to its role in cellular function and metabolism. PQQ was initially discovered as a cofactor for certain enzymes in bacteria, and later, its presence and importance were recognized in higher organisms, including plants and animals. [R] [R]

Potential Benefits of PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone)

Enhanced Cognitive Function

Research suggests that PQQ may support cognitive function and memory. A study published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (2009) showed that PQQ supplementation improved spatial memory and learning ability in aged mice, indicating its potential cognitive benefits. [R]

Antioxidant Properties

PQQ acts as a potent antioxidant, helping to neutralize free radicals. A study in Antioxidants (2016) demonstrated PQQ’s antioxidative abilities, highlighting its potential role in protecting cells from oxidative damage. [R]

Encourages the Synthesis of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

PQQ has been associated with enhanced NGF synthesis, which is necessary for nerve cell maintenance and proliferation. PLOS ONE (2011) research showed that PQQ can increase NGF synthesis, indicating a potential role in promoting nerve health. [R]

Energy Production and Mitochondrial Function

PQQ helps mitochondria function, which may enhance cellular energy generation. A 2013 study published in the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition showed that PQQ supplementation improved energy use in adults and increased mitochondrial efficiency. [R]

Heart and Vascular Health

According to research, PQQ may benefit cardiovascular health. PQQ may help lower blood pressure and improve lipid profiles in people, according to a 2015 study that was published in the Journal of Nutrition. [R]

Possible Anti-inflammatory Results

PQQ might have anti-inflammatory qualities. PQQ has been shown to have the ability to lower inflammatory markers, indicating its function in regulating inflammation, according to research published in the European Journal of Nutrition in 2017. [R]

Possible Anti-aging Qualities

According to certain research, PQQ may slow down the aging process by promoting cellular health in general. A study published in BioFactors in 2008 examined PQQ’s potential contribution to increasing longevity and health span. [R]

Key Features

CAS Number: 72909-34-3

Molar Mass: Approximately 330.23 g/mol

Chemical Formula: C14H6N2O8

IUPAC Name: 3-(4,5-dihydro-4,4-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinolin-7-yl)-2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid

Synonyms: PQQ disodium salt, Methoxatin, BioPQQ

How Does PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) Work?

Cofactor of Redox

PQQ functions as a redox cofactor, assisting in the transport of electrons during metabolic reactions. It aids in energy production and metabolism by participating in oxidation-reduction (redox) events within cells. [R]

Production of Cellular Energy

PQQ interacts with enzymes involved in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) generation and hence plays an important function in cellular energy metabolism. ATP is the fundamental energy molecule that cells use for a variety of purposes. [R]

Enhancing Mitochondrial Function

PQQ potentially promotes the health and performance of mitochondria. The mitochondria are the cell’s energy production and utilization centers, and PQQ aids in maximizing their efficiency.[R]

Antioxidant Characteristics

Strong antioxidant PQQ works to stifle dangerous free radicals. Free radicals are unsteady chemicals that can harm cells and lead to oxidative stress. PQQ’s antioxidant properties aid in defending cells against this harm. [R]

Stimulation of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

It has been demonstrated that PQQ promotes the production of NGF, a protein essential for the development, upkeep, and survival of nerve cells (neurons). This stimulation promotes the health of the nerves and might improve mental performance. [R]


When considering PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone), it’s essential to be aware of certain precautions. Here are some important points to keep in mind:

Follow Instructions: Read and follow the provided instructions or any accompanying documentation.

Research Purposes: Recognize that the compound is only for laboratory research use and should not be utilized for self-administration or other non-research reasons.

Expert Guidance: Seek advice from experienced researchers, scientists, medical experts, or a healthcare professional in the field. Their knowledge may assist in ensuring optimal dosage, application, and safety measures.

Regulatory Compliance: Search for regulatory compliance such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that may apply to the usage of the compound.

Handling and Storage: To preserve the safety and integrity of the compound, observe correct handling practices and store it in a cool, dry place to maintain its stability and prevent degradation. 

Potential Side Effects

While Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) is generally considered safe at recommended uses, potential side effects are rare and mild, including upset stomach, diarrhea, or headache. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term safety and any potential adverse effects. [R]


In conclusion, Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) showcases potential benefits for human health. As a dietary supplement, PQQ has demonstrated its capacity to support cognitive health, enhance mitochondrial function, and promote superior-quality nutrition products. Its potential ability to stimulate spontaneous mitochondrial biogenesis, aiding in mitochondrial growth within cellular mitochondria, may contribute to heightened energy levels. PQQ, often found in gluten-free mineral supplements, stands at the forefront of research in the realm of heart and brain health. Its role in cell signaling pathways opens new avenues for understanding its significance in maintaining optimal health and vitality in new living organisms. Further exploration and research are crucial to unlocking the full potential of PQQ and harnessing its benefits for a healthier future. [R]

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