Pyrroloquinoline Quinone


Methoxatin and pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt are further names for PQQ. [R] PQQ can be found in soil, food items like kiwifruit, and human breast milk. [R] Hauge discovered pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, also called methoxatin), and Kennard identified its structure 15 years later. [R] Cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was first isolated from methylotrophic bacteria (microorganisms that are capable of using one-carbon compounds such as methane, methanol, and formaldehyde as their sole source of energy). [R]

PQQ is used by bacteria as a cofactor in redox cycling that involves the repeated reduction and oxidation of a molecule or compound. [R] Research areas for this compound have so far been involved in the fields of cardiovascular health, bone health, cognitive function, anti-aging, diabetes, and cancer to name a few.

Key Features offers PQQ with the following specifications:

  • A purity of 98%, verified by third-party laboratory testing.
  • A 25mg tablet form

How Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Works?

Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell, PQQ has been found to play a crucial role in supporting healthy mitochondrial structure and cellular mitochondria function, ultimately contributing to increased energy production in the body. This is achieved through the activation of PGC-1 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1), a family of transcriptional coactivators responsible for regulating cellular energy metabolism, particularly within the mitochondria. PQQ supplementation may also help support healthy mitochondria by functioning as a REDOX agent, reducing oxidants, and exhibiting antioxidant activity while being recycled by glutathione back into an active form.[R

In the reduction-oxidation process of cells inside the mitochondria, PQQ may function as a REDOX agent, reducing oxidants (an antioxidant activity) and then being recycled by glutathione back into an active form. [R]

Overall, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) affects the neurologic and metabolic processes that deal with energy. Interactions with mitochondrial activity and cell signaling pathways are part of the mechanism of action. [R]

The scientific basis behind the benefits of PQQ

PQQ’s efficacy and safety have been studied. For its potential to be helpful in a variety of illnesses, PQQ has undergone extensive research. Recent PQQ research topics include those on the list below:

Cardiovascular Support

Research suggests that PQQ is a potent cardioprotective drug and appears to work as a free radical scavenger in ischemic myocardium. [R]

PQQ, administered at the commencement of reperfusion in rat models of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion, is highly efficient in lowering infarct size and increasing heart function in a dose-related way, with 15mg/kg as the ideal dosage. [R]

Brain health and Cognitive health

PQQ has been shown to possibly protect neurons against damage and improve cognitive function in animal models of neuroinjury.  [R]

A study investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in a rotenone-induced (rotenone is a pesticide that has been shown to cause degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and is often used as a model for Parkinson’s Disease) PD model. PQQ may benefit brain health specifically with PD. [R]

The studies only show that PQQ has the ability to protect brain health, maintain healthy mental functions, and promote nervous system health. PQQ is also known to stimulate the production of a protein called nerve growth factor, which is associated with a wide range of health benefits.

Bone Health

Studies have shown that PQQ can prevent bone loss and improve bone density in mice with osteoporosis. [R]

PQQ has the potential to prevent osteoporosis by reducing oxidative stress and osteoclastic bone resorption. [R]


PQQ has the potential as a human longevity vitamin the majority of the evidence for the latter comes from studies on rodents, wherein PQQ is essential for the health of the mitochondria. [R]


PQQ was able to reduce glucose AUC and glucose disposition in diabetic rats, suggesting a potential benefit for individuals with diabetes. [R]


PQQ has been shown to induce antileukemia effect leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner through the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). [R1; R2]

PQQ has been linked to decreased tyrosinase expression and gene activity in cultivated cells, which can lower the expression of melanogenic (melanin-producing) proteins. According to this study, PQQ may be an anti-melanogenic drug that can treat hyperpigmentation diseases. [R]


The US FDA has deemed Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) generally recognized as safe (GRAS). PQQ has undergone considerable research in both human and animal investigations, and at authorized doses, no major adverse effects have been identified. [R

Additionally, because PQQ supplementation at high levels has not been thoroughly researched for its long-term safety, caution should be used when using PQQ at large doses or for an extended period of time.

Furthermore, this material is being provided for educational reasons only; it is not intended to be taken as medical advice. PQQ  is not meant for human consumption and is only meant for use in laboratories and research.

Potential side effects

Because there has been few research, its negative effects are also not thoroughly understood. However, toxicity studies show that PQQ, when taken in very high amounts, increases the risk of kidney injury. [R]

Frequently Ask Questions (FAQs)

Could I get pyrroloquinoline quinone naturally?

Incorporating healthy foods that contain PQQ may contribute to overall mitochondrial health. Fermented soybeans, natto, green peppers, kiwi, parsley, tea, papaya, spinach, and celery all contain PQQ. [R]

PQQ is sometimes available as a dietary supplement, which can be particularly beneficial to support energy levels or maintain healthy mitochondrial function. Additionally, PQQ supplements are often gluten-free, making them suitable for gluten sensitivities or other diseases or health conditions.

What is the difference between pyrroloquinoline quinone and CoQ10?

CoQ10 is a substance that functions inside the mitochondria and may have an impact on metabolic activities like respiration and oxygen use. PQQ helps to maximize the number of mitochondria. [R]

Should PQQ and CoQ10 be taken together?

A powerful punch is delivered by PQQ and CoQ10. PQQ aids in fostering mitochondrial biogenesis, whereas CoQ10 helps to increase the speed and efficiency of mitochondria. They cooperate to generate energy more quickly. [R]

What is pyrroloquinoline quinone good for?

PQQ may help the brain and body in a number of ways, including by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, generating neurotrophic factors, acting as a potent antioxidant, lowering inflammatory levels, and reducing oxidative stress.

These beneficial benefits, however, do not imply that PQQ is a safe substance that supports human health and well-being. PQQ’s purported health advantages are still being investigated in more depth.

Where Can I Buy the Best PQQ? offers PQQ for laboratory research use only.

When buying PQQ, it is important to choose a reputable seller who provides quality products. At, each product is accompanied by a third-party-issued Certificate of Analysis showing the identification, purity, and concentration of our product.


PQQ Pyrroloquinoline Quinone is a water-soluble quinone that affects the neurologic and metabolic processes that deal with energy by influencing interactions with mitochondrial activity and cell signaling pathways. PQQ can be found in soil, food items like kiwifruit, and human breast milk. IPQQ has potential benefits for cardiovascular support, maintaining healthy brain function, bone health, anti-aging, diabetes, and cancer. However, its negative effects are not thoroughly understood, and toxicity studies show that PQQ when taken in very high amounts, increases the risk of kidney injury.


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